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AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION (APA) CITATION GUIDE
The examples provided are based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, available in Wawasan libraries under call number REF BF767 P976 2010. Further information is available at APA website. This citation guide is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. Before using it, please consult your course co-ordinator/project supervisor as to the preferred citation style of your discipline.
 
Note: Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each source.
 
The APA style requires that each reference cited in text (e.g. Neuman, 2006) must appear in the reference list (e.g. Neuman, W. L. (2006). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. 6th ed. Boston: Pearson), and each entry in the reference list must be cited in text.
 
Examples
 
Print documents | Parts of a book | Journal articles | Newspaper article | Electronic documents | Interviews and E-mail | Other sources | Sample reference list | Abbreviations | Writing and research guides | Bibliographic Management Software
 
Print documents
To document a book, the following details should be provided:

Author's last name, First and Second Initial. (Year in publication). Title in italic. Location: Publisher.
 
TypeReference List
Book - single authorConsumers' Association of Penang. Drugs and the Third World: aminophenazone and dipyrone : Hazards and marketing practices. Penang: CAP.
 
Neuman, W. L. (2006). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. 6th ed. Boston: Pearson.
 
Book - more than one author or editorsDubofsky, D. A., & Miller, T. W. Eds. (2003). Derivatives: Valuation and risk management. New York: Oxford University Press.
 
Unknown authorKamus Dewan. (2nd ed). Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
 
No date of publicationAl-Arabi, A. B. n.d. Ahkam al-Quran. Cairo: Maktabah al-Azhariyyah.
 
TranslationShui, C. T. (1973). Li Po and Tu Fu: Poems selected and translated with an introduction and notes. (M. Malcolm, Trans.). Harmondsworth, Eng.: Penguin Books.
 
Multivolume workStewart, M., & Williams, D. B. (1987). Urbanism and urbanization. Vols.1-4). New York: Cambridge.
 
Theses or dissertationSyn, S. C. (1999). The progress of education in Malaysia after independence. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
 
ConferenceBujang, B. K. H. & Husaini Omar, Eds. (2002). Proceedings of 2nd GEGEM Research Seminar, July 2-4, 2003. Serdang: Penerbit UPM.
 
OrganisationTelekom Malaysia Berhad. (2003). Laporan tahunan 2001. Kuala Lumpur: Telekom Malaysia Berhad.
 
Government publicationMalaysia. Kementerian Kesihatan. (1996). Malaysia's health: Technical report of the Director-General of Health, Malaysia. KKM/Research Report/04/96. Malaysia: KKM.
 
 
Parts of a book
This refers to chapters or parts of edited work in which the parts have individual title and author(s), but are included in collections edited by others.

To document parts of a book, the following details should be provided:-

Author's last name, First and Second Initial. (Year of Publication). Title of chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Location: Publisher.
 
Examples
 
TypeReference List
Article or chapter in a bookRasiah, R. (2004). Explaining growth, poverty and distribution in Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. In Abdul Rahman Embong (Ed.), Globalisation Culture & Inequalities (pp.146-166). Bangi: UKM Press.
 
Conference or seminar paperSahibin Abdul Rahim. (2002). Rational soil management in the humid tropics. In Santokh, S. & Singhaseri, J. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference of the Asian Society of Soil Scientists, 15-21 July. Kuala Lumpur: Pelanduk.
 
 
Journal articles
To document journal articles, the following details should be provided:-

Author's last name, First name and Second Initial. (Year). Article Title. Journal Title, volume number.(issue number), pages.

Note: Issue number should only be provided if each issue of the journal begins with page 1. If the entire volume of the journal uses continuous pagination, provide only the volume number.
 
Examples
 
TypeReference List
Journal articleJames, S. & Ma, Y. (2003).The behavior of financial analysts during the Asian financial crisis in Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. Pacific-Basin Finance Journal 9, 233-263.
 
Anonymous article (Unknown author)Anon. (2004). Biotechnology research at the crossroad. Education Issues 55(8), 34-36.
 
 
Newspaper article
Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for newspaper articles e.g. p. N7; pp. W12 or pp. N1, N7-8.
 
TypeReference List
Newspaper articleEmmanuel, J. (2005, March 19). Heritage buildings to house varsity. New Straits Times, pp. N30-31.
 
 
Electronic documents
This covers Internet sites, e-mails, and electronic journal or book retrieved from one of the full-text databases subscribed by WOU library.

Emails are not included in the list of references.

To document an electronic resource, the following details should be provided:-
If the work is not directly available online or must be purchased, use "Available from" rather than "Retrieved from".

Include the date of retrieval only if the document used is likely to be changed.
 
Examples
 
TypeReference List
E-booksSanchez, J. & Canton, M. P. (2002). Java programming for engineers. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press. Retrieved from Ebscohost e-book
 
Matthew, H. Ed. (2006). Introducing information management: the business approach. Amsterdam: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann. Retrieved from Ebrary.
 
Commonwealth of Learning. (2005). Creating learning materials for open and distance learning: a handbook for authors and instructional designers. Vancouver: COL. Retrieved from http://www.col.org/colweb/webday/site/myjahiasite/shared/docs/
 
E-journal from full-text databaseSelvarajan, T. T. (2006). A cognitive processing model for assessing ethical behaviour of employees. Journal of American Academy of Business 9(1), 86-92. Retrieved from EbscoHost.
 
Desharnais, J., Bernhard, M. & Struth, G. Kleene algebra with domain. ACM Transactions on Computational Logic 7(4): 798-833. Retrieved from ACM Digital Library.
 
Journal article from the InternetJacobs, J. A. (1996). Gender inequality and higher education. Annual Review of Sociology 22, 3-6. Retrieved from http://www.questia.com.
 
Newspaper article from InternetSario, R. (2006, July 19). Sabah tourism players not happy with sales tax plan. The Star. Retrieved from http://biz.thestar.com.my/news.
 
Newspaper article from full text databaseGanesan, V. (2006, December 12). Tesco to take over Makro stores in Malaysia. The New Straits Times. Retrieved from NSTP E-Media.
 
Internet documentMalaysia. Ministry of Human Resources. (2003). Combating unemployment: the Malaysian experience. Retrieved from http://www.mohr.gov.my/my/mygoveg/
 
Wawasan Open University. Registry. (2006). Tutor and tutorial support. Retrieved from http://www.wou.edu.my/study_lstutor.aspx
 
Malaysia. Ministry of Higher Education. (2006). Report by the Committee to study, review and make recommendations concerning the development and direction of higher education in Malaysia. Retrieved from http://portal.acm.org.neptune.wou.edu.my/dl.cfm?coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=8060441&CFTOKEN=11556764
 
FTP siteMathews. J. (2005). Numerical methods for Mathematics, Science and Engineering. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Retrieved from ftp://ftp.ntua.gr/pub/netlib/textbook/index.html.
 
 
Personal interviews, e-mail and personal communication
There is no need to include any personal communication in your reference list as these are not considered recoverable data. Instead, parenthetically cite the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication in your main text only.

(E. J. Seng, personal communication, August 7, 2006).

E. J. Seng voiced his concern on lowering the passing marks of the English Communication paper (personal communication, November 3, 2005).
 
Other resources
To document an audio-visual media, the following details should be recorded:-

Producer's last name, First and Second Initial. (Producer), & Director's last name, First and Second Initial. (Director). (Year). Title of movie [Format e.g. Motion picture or DVD]. Country where move was produced: Name of Studio.

The APA Publication Manual doesn't provide any guidelines for citing microfilms or microfiche as identical copies are available on printed sources. The citation may therefore be left out or cite it by indicating the format in brackets after the title of the journal/magazine/newspaper.
 
Examples
 
TypeReference List
InterviewWaruthers, A. (Interviewer). (2006, August 26). Interview with Abdullah Ahmad Badawi. BBC Evening News. [Radio Broadcast]. London: British Broadcasting Corporation.
 
Video recordingPoong, A. (Producer). (2006). Wawasan Open University: Increasing access to higher learning. [DVD]. Penang: WOU.
 
Television broadcastZamri Ahmad. (Producer), & Arumuggam, D. (Director). (2010, December 15). Learning made easier. [Television broadcast]. Kuala Lumpur: TV2.
 
MicroformMiller, C. M. 1994. Mobilize your business. In PC Magazine. [Microfiche]. Tokyo: Comp Communications.
 
CD-ROMs or DVD-ROMsTerry, A. & Giugni, D. M. (2006). Business & the law. 4th ed. [CD-ROM]. Melbourne: Thomson.
 
 
Sample reference list
References

Al-Arabi, A. B. n.d. Ahkam al-Quran. Cairo: Maktabah al-Azhariyyah.

Jacobs, J. A. (1996). Gender inequality and higher education. Annual Review of Sociology 22, 3-6. Retrieved from http://www.questia.com

Mathews, J. (2005). Numerical methods for Mathematics, Science, and Engineering. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Retrieved from ftp://ftp.ntua.gr/pub/netlib/textbook/index.html.

Neuman, W. L. (2006). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. 6th ed. Boston: Pearson.

Rasiah, R. (2004). Explaining growth, poverty and distribution in Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. In Abdul Rahman Embong (Ed.), Globalisation Culture & Inequalitites (pp. 145-166). Bangi: UKM Press.

Sario, R. (2006, July 19). Sabah tourism players not happy with sales tax plan. The Star. Retrieved from http://biz.thestar.com.my/news.

Selvarajan, T. T. (2006). A cognitive processing model for assessing ethical behaviour of employees. Journal of American Academy of Business 9(1), 86-92. Retrieved from Ebscohost.

Syn, S. C. (1999). The progress of education in Malaysia after independence (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.

Waruthers, A. (Interviewer). (2006, August 26). Interview with Abdullah Ahmad Badawi. BBC Evening News. [Radio broadcast]. London: British Broadcasting Corporation.

Zamri Ahmad. (Producer), & Arumuggam, D. (Director). (2010, December 15). Learning made easier. [Television broadcast]. Kuala Lumpur: TV 2.

Abbreviations
You may use the approved abbreviations listed below for constructing your reference list. Refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for more examples.
 
AbbreviationsTerms
chap.Chapter
ed.Edition
Ed. (Eds.)Editor(s)
et al.and others (from Latin et alii, et aliae)
n.d.No date of publication
No.Number
p.(pp.)Page(s)
para.Paragraph
Pt.Part
Rev. edRevised edition
Suppl.Supplement
Tech. RepTechnical Report
Trans.Translator(s)
Vol.Volume (as in Vol. 4)
vols.Volumes (as in 4 vols.)
 
Note: Use the abbreviation "pp." for page numbers in encyclopedia entries, multi-page newspaper articles, chapters, or articles in edited books, but not in journal or magazine article citations, where number alone should be used.

Writing and Research Guides
Beside the APA style guide, you may also consult the following writing and research guides available at the Main Library.
  • American Psychological Association. 2005. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. 5th ed. Washington: American Psychological Association. (Call number BF76.7. P976 2001 Reference)
  • Booth, W. C., G. G. Colomb and J. M. Williams. 2008. The craft of research. 3rd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (Call number Q180.55 M4 B724 2008)
  • Fisher, C. 2004. Researching and writing a dissertation for business students. Essex: Pearson Education. (Call number LB2369. F528 2004)
  • Gibaldi, J. 2003. MLA handbook for writers of research papers. 6th ed. New York: Modern Language Association of America. (Call number LB2369. G437 2003)
  • Houghton, P. M., T. J. Houghton and M. F. Peters. 2005. APA: the easy way! A quick and simplified guide to the APA writing style. Flint, Mich.: Baker College, 2005. (Call number BF76.7. H835 2005)
  • Turabian, K. L. 1996. A manual for writers of term papers, theses, and disertations. 6th ed. Revised by John Grossman and Alice Bennett. Chicago: University of Chicago press. (Call number LB2369. T929 1996)
 
Bibliographic Management Software
There is a number of software available in the market that you can use for storing and cross linking your references and notes, and for generating specific bibliographies. The software varies in terms of costs, features and platform used. The University has no preference for any particular software but some of the popular ones are:-
  • EndNote
  • ProCite for Windows and Macintosh - Version 5 is available at the WOU Main Library. See the Reference Librarian if you need to use the software.
  • LibraryMaster
  • Papyrus - Free download for produing bibliographies, storing and cross linking references and importing bibliographic references etc.
  • Landmark's Citation Machines - A free website that students and researchers can use to cite their resources according to MLA, APA, Turabian and Chicago Style.
  • EasyBib - A free bibliography composer that you can use to format your sources using current APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian styles.
  • Mendeley - A freely-downloaded client which manage your documents on desktop and in the cloud. It also facilitates social networking, collaboration and sharing information within research networks.
  • Qiqqa - An excellent freeware which help to organize large number of PDFs files for researchers.
 
 
 
  
July-August 2017
May-June 2017
March-April 2017
January-February 2017
May-June 2017 (Fiction)
March-April 2017 (Fiction)
 
Berita Harian                 Business Times
Guang Ming                    Kwong Wah Yit Poh
Malay Mail                      Nanyang Siang Pau
New Straits Times       The Star Online
The Sun Daily                Utusan Online