Best viewed using Mozilla 67, IE 11 and Chrome 75 and above
ANNOUNCEMENTS


OPERATION HOURS (PENANG)
 (PART-TIME STUDY SEMESTER MODE)
(15 July 2019 - 08 December 2019)


Monday - Sunday: 8.30 AM - 8.00 PM
Monday - Sunday : 8.30 AM - 10.00 PM 
(During Part-Time Study Examinations Weeks)
PART-TIME STUDY ACADEMIC SEMESTER BREAK MODE
[09 December 2019 - 12 January 2020]

Monday - Friday : 8.30 AM - 8.00 PM
Closed on weekends.

REGIONAL CENTRE LIBRARIES
Tuesday - Sunday: 10.00 am to 7.00 pm.

Closed on public holidays.

       
Watch these video tutorials (How To...)
Turnitin Tutorials for Student - Part 1 & Part 2
Searching for Printed Books
Searching for Journal Articles
Searching For & Reading E-Books
Downloading & Reading EBSCO E-Books from Smartphone(Bluefire App)
Renewing Your Library Books Online
Searching & Using Library Cart


The Library is pleased to announce the addition of the following two new e-journal databases!
(1) EBSCOHost Psychology & Behavioral Sciences Collection  [View Tutorial Guide]
(2) Emerald Insight - Education, Engineering, Information & Knowledge Management  [View Tutorial Guide]
We want to hear your views. Participate in our poll!

  
The examples provided are based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition) (Washington DC: American Psychological Association, 2010), available in Wawasan libraries under call number REF BF76.7 P976 2010. Further information is available at APA website. This citation guide is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.
 
Examples
 
Print documents | Parts of a book | Journal articles | Newspaper article (Print) | Electronic documents | Other sources | Reference list | Abbreviations | Writing and research guides | Bibliographic Management Software
 
Print documents
To document a book, the following details should be provided:

Author's last name, First and Second Initial. (Year in publication). Title in italic. Location: Publisher.
 
Resource type
Book - Single authorIn-text citation  Kourik (1998)
(Kourik, 1998)
Reference list  Kourik, R. (1998). The lavender garden: Beautiful varieties to grow and gather. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books.
Book - More than one author or editorsIn-text citation  Flinders and Mills (1993)
(Flinders & Mills, 1993)
Reference list  Flinders, D. J., & Mills, G. E. (Eds.). (1993). Theory and concepts in qualitative research: Perspectives from the field. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Book (Corporate or organization author)In-text citation  Ohio State (1959)
(Ohio State, 1959)
Reference list  Ohio State University. Natural Resources Institute. (1959). A directory of Ohio facilities and services for resource conservation. Columbus, OH: Natural Resources Institute.
TranslationIn-text citation  Laplace (1951)
(Laplace, 1951)
Reference list  Laplace, P. S. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities. (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). New York, NY: Dover. (Original work published 1814).
Multivolume workIn-text citation  Levinson and Ember (1996)
(Levinson & Ember, 1996)
Reference list  Levinson, D., & Ember, M. (Eds.). (1996). Encyclopedia of cultural anthropology (Vols. 1-4). New York, NY: Henry Holt.
Theses or dissertationIn-text citation  Dewstow (2006)
(Dewstow, 2006)
Reference list  Dewstow, R. A. (2006). Using the Internet to enhance teaching at the University of Waikato (Unpublished master's thesis). University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand.
ProceedingsIn-text citation  Bujang and Husaini (2002)
(Bujang & Husaini, 2002)
Reference list  Bujang, B. K. H., & Husaini Omar. (Eds.). (2002). Proceedings of 2nd GEGEM Research Seminar, July 2-4, 2003. Serdang: Penerbit UPM.
OrganisationIn-text citation  American Psychological Association, (2009)
(American Psychological Association [APA], 2009)
Reference list  American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Government publicationIn-text citation  National Institute of Mental Health (1990)
(National Institute of Mental Health, 1990)
Reference list  National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
 
Parts of a Book
This refers to chapters or parts of edited work in which the parts have individual title and author(s), but are included in collections edited by others.

To document parts of a book, refer the following citation format
 
Resource type
Article or chapter in a bookIn-text citation  Helber (1995)
(Helber, 1995)
Reference list  Helber, L. E. (1995). Redeveloping mature resorts for new markets. In M. V. Conlin & T. Baum (Eds.), Island tourism: Management principles and practice (pp.105-113). Chichester, England: Wiley.
Conference or seminar paperIn-text citationHasmah and Azizah (2007)
(Hasmah & Azizah, 2007)
Reference listHasmah Zanuddin, & Azizah Hamzah. (2007). International trade agreement of intellectual property rights (TRIPS), copyright issues & burden to enforce in Malaysia. In K.Y. Choi (Ed.), Korean studies in Southeast Asia: Strategic. cooperation and development in research and education: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference of the Korean Studies Association of Southeast Asia University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (pp. 121-138). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: University of Malaya.
 
Journal Articles
To document journal articles, refer the following citation format
 
Resource Type
Journal articleIn-text citation  Terborgh (1974)
(Terborgh, 1974)
(Terborgh, 1974, p. 720)
Reference list  Terborgh, J. (1974). Preservation of natural diversity: The problem of extinction-prone species. BioScience, 24, 715-22.
Journal article with two authorsIn-text citationBolzan and Jezek (2000)
(Bolzan & Jezek, 2000)
(Bolzan & Jezek, 2000, pp. 280-281)
Reference listBolzan, J. F., & Jezek, K. C. (2000). Accumulation rate changes in central Greenland from passive microwave data. Polar Geography, 27(4), 277-319.
 
Newspaper Article in Print
This covers citing a newspaper in print.
 
Resource Type
Newspaper articleIn-text citation  Schwartz (1993)
(Schwartz, 1993)
Reference list  Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4
 
Electronic Documents
This covers Internet sites, emails, and electronic journal or book retrieved from one of the full-text databases subscribed by WOU library.
To document an electronic resource, refer the following citation format.
 
Resource Type
Electronic bookIn-text citation  Green (2014)
(Green, 2014)
Reference list  Green, C. H. (2014). Banker's guide to new small business finance: Venture deals, crowdfunding, private equity, and technology. Retrieved from https://library-books24x7-com/
E-journal from fulltext databaseIn-text citation(Shepherd et al., 2007)
Shepherd et al. (2007)
Reference listShepherd, R., Barnett, J., Cooper, H., Coyle, A., Moran-Ellis, J., Senior, V., & Walton, C. (2007). Towards an understanding of British public attitudes concerning human cloning. Social Science & Medicine, 65(2), 377-392. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.03.018
Journal article from the InternetIn-text citation(Snell & Hodgetts, n.d.)
Snell and Hodgetts (n.d.) identified "..." (para. 3)
Reference listSnell, D., & Hodgetts, D. (n.d.). The psychology of heavy metal communities and white supremacy. Te Kura Kete Aronui, 1. Retrieved from http://www.waikato.ac.nz/wfass/tkka
Newspaper article from InternetIn-text citationSario (2006)
(Sario, 2006)
Reference listSario, R. (2006, July 19). Sabah tourism players not happy with sales tax plan. The Star. Retrieved from http://biz.thestar.com.my/news
Newspaper article from fulltext databaseIn-text citationHowe (2018)
(Howe, 2018)
Reference listHowe, F. (2018). Cool offices: flexibility in employee growth. The Star Online, April 20. Retrieved from http://mystarjob.com/articles/story.aspx?file=/2018/4/20/mystarjob_features/201. 80420094551&sec=mystarjob_features
Whole Internet siteIn-text citationMinistry of Human Resources (2003)
(Ministry of Human Resources, 2003)
Reference listMalaysia. Ministry of Human Resources. (2003). Combating unemployment: the Malaysian experience. Retrieved from http://www.mohr.gov.my/mygoveg/
Internet document - No authorIn-text citation("Tutor and tutorial support", 2016)
Reference listTutor and tutorial support. (2006). Wawasan Open University Registry. Retrieved from http://www.wou.edu.my/study_lstutor.aspx
Government publicationIn-text citationMinistry of Higher Education (2006)
(Ministry of Higher Education, 2006)
Reference listMalaysia. Ministry of Higher Education. Malaysia education blueprint 2015-2025 (higher education). (2015). Retrieved from http://www.mohe.gov.my/muat-turun/awam/penerbitan/pppm-2015-2025-pt/5-malaysia-education-blueprint-2015-2025-higher-education
E-mailIn-text citation(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2018).
Reference listNote: No personal communication is included in your reference list; instead, parenthetically cite the communicators name and the date of the communication in your main text only.
 
Other Sources
This includes interview recording, television broadcast, motion picture/video recording blogs, etc.
 
Electronic bookIn-text citation  Abdullah (2006)
(Abdullah, 2006)
Reference list  Abdullah Ahmad Badawi. (2006). Interview by Allan Waruthers. BBC Evening News. British Broadcasting Corporation, 24 August 2005.
Audiovisual film - Motion pictureIn-text citation  Vasile and Fellini (2001)
(Vasile & Fellini, 2001)
Reference list  Vasile, T. (Producer), & Fellini, F. (Director). (2001). Roma [Motion picture]. United States: MGM Home Entertainment.
Television programmeIn-text citation  Slater (2002)
(Slater, 2002)
Reference list  Slater, K. (Producer). (2002). Gene in a bottle [Television series episode]. In 60 minutes. Auckland, New Zealand: TV3 Network Services
CD-ROMs or DVD-ROMsIn-text citation  Homeyer and Mikolajczyk (2006)
(Homeyer & Mikolajczyk, 2006)
Reference list  Homeyer, J., & Mikolajczyk, S. (2004). Techniques of crime scene investigation [CD-ROM]. [Boca Raton, FL]: CRC.
PhotographsIn-text citation  Roege (1958)
(Roege, 1958)
Reference list  Roege, W.J. (Photographer). (1958). St. Patrick's cathedral, fifth avenue from 50th street to 51st street [photograph]. New York, NY: New-York Historical Society.
Online discussionIn-text citation  Chalmers (2000)
(Chalmers, 2000)
Reference list  Chalmers, D. (2000, November 17). Seeing with sound [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from http://groups.google.com/group/sci.psychology.consciousness/

Note: Do not italicise titles of unpublished works
Blog postIn-text citation  Wadard (2009)
(Wadard, 2009)
Reference list  Wadard. (2009, June 15). Australia's climate bill may be scuttled [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://globalwarmingwatch.blogspot.com/

Note: Do not italicise titles of unpublished works
Video blog postIn-text citation  Leelefever (2007)
(Leelefever, 2007)
Reference list  Leelefever. (2007, May 29). Wiki in plain English [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?watch?v=-dnL00TdmLY

Note: Do not italicise titles of unpublished works
Website (Print)In-text citation  National Geographic (2005)
(National Geographic, 2005)
Reference list  Roach, J. (2005). Journal ranks top 25 unanswered science questions. Retrieved from http://nationalgeographic.com
Webpage (Informally published work)In-text citation  (New Zealand Government, 2007)
Reference list  Statistics New Zealand. (2007). New Zealand in profile 2007. Retrieved from http://www.stats.govt.nz
Website (Video)In-text citation  Ross (2017)
(Ross, 2017)
Reference list  Ross, Nancy, "Ancient near Eastern and ancient Egyptian art," performed by Ydraw (video) 0:30/6:17. Utah System of Higher Education. Retrieved January 24, 2017 from http://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/art-history-basics/art-1010-ddp/v/ancient-near-eastern-and-ancient-egyptian-art
MusicIn-text citation  The Beatles (2003)
(The Beatles, 2003, track 10)

Note: Include side and band or track numbers
Reference list  The Beatles. (2003). Across the universe. On Let it be... naked [CD]. Hollywood, CA: Capital Records.
Computer softwareIn-text citation  (Version 2.1; Esolang, 2014)
Reference list  Esolang, A. N. (2014). Obscure Reference Generator [Computer software]. Washington, DC: E & K Press.
 
Reference List
The sample reference list will look like the following :
Bujang, B. K. H., & Husaini Omar. (Eds.). (2002). Proceedings of 2nd GEGEM Research Seminar, July 2-4, 2003. Serdang: Penerbit UPM.
Dewstow, R. A. (2006). Using the Internet to enhance teaching at the University of Waikato (Unpublished master's thesis). University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand.
Flinders, D. J., & Mills, G. E. (Eds.) (1993). Theory and concepts in qualitative research: Perspectives from the field. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Green, C. H. (2014). Banker's guide to new small business finance: venture deals, crowdfunding, private equity, and technology. Retrieved from https://library-books24x7-com/
Helber, L. E. (1995). Redeveloping mature resorts for new markets. In M. V. Conlin & T. Baum (Eds.), Island tourism: Management principles and practice (pp. 105-113). Chichester, England: Wiley.
Kourik, R. (1998). The lavender garden: Beautiful varieties to grow and gather. San Francisco: Chronicle Books.
Laplace, P. S. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities. (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). New York, NY: Dover. (Original work published 1814).
Levinson, D., & Ember, M. (Eds.). (1996). Encyclopedia of cultural anthropology (Vols. 1-4). New York, NY: Henry Holt
National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Ohio State University. Natural Resources Institute. (1959). A directory of Ohio facilities and services for resource conservation. Columbus, OH: Natural Resources Institute.
Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.
Shepherd, R., Barnett, J., Cooper, H., Coyle, A., Moran-Ellis, J., Senior, V., & Walton, C. (2007). Towards an understanding of British public attitudes concerning human cloning. Social Science & Medicine, 65(2), 377-392. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.03.018
Snell, D., & Hodgetts, D. (n.d.). The psychology of heavy metal communities and white supremacy. Te Kura Kete Aronui, 1. Retrieved from http://www.waikato.ac.nz/wfass/tkka
 
Abbreviations
You may use the standard abbreviations listed below in your citations. Use it sparingly to maximize clarity. A term should not be abbreviated unless it appears three or more times after its first mention in a paper
 
APA TermsAbbreviation
and otherset al.
and so on / and so forth   etc.
chapterchap.
comparecf.
editioned.
Editor(s)Ed. or Eds.
for examplee.g.,
kilogramkg
literL
namelyviz.,
No date of publicationn.d.
NumberNo.
Page(s)p. or pp.
Paragraphpara.
Partpt.
revised editionRev. ed.
Second Edition2nd ed.
SupplementSuppl.
Technical ReportTech. Rep.
that isi.e.,
Translator(s)Trans.
versusvs.
voltV
Volume(s)Vol. or Vols.
wattW
 
Note: Use the abbreviation "pp." for page numbers in encyclopedia entries, multi-page newspaper articles, chapters, or articles in edited books, but not in journal or magazine article citations, where number alone should be used.

Writing and Research Guides
Beside the APA style guide, you may also consult the following writing and research guides available at the Main Library.
  • Boden, C. J., Murray, T., & Elufiede, O. (2016). Enhancing writing skills. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing. Retrieved April 18, 2019 from http://search.ebscohost.com
  • Evans, D., Gruba, P., & Zobel, J. (2014). How to write a better thesis (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Springer. (Call number LB2369 E925 2014)
  • Fabb, N., & Durant, A. (2014). How to write essays and dissertations: A guide for English Literature students (2nd ed.). London: Routledge. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com
  • Greene, S., & Lidinsky, A. (2018). From inquiry to academic writing: A practical guide (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Bedford/St Martin's. (Call number LB2369 G812 2018)
  • Northey, M., Tepperman, L., & Albanese, P. (2015). Making sense: A student's guide to research and writing, social sciences (6th ed.). Ontario, CA: Oxford University Press. (Call number LB2369 N874 2015)
  • Turabian, K. L. (2018). A manual for writers of research papers, theses and dissertation (9th ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. (Call number LB2369 T929 2018)
  • Williams, P. (2018). Advanced writing skills for students of English. Brighton, CO: Rumian Publishing. (Call number PE1097 W726 2018)
 
Bibliographic Management Software
There is a number of software available in the market that you can use for storing and cross linking your references and notes, and for generating specific bibliographies. The software varies in terms of costs, features and platform used. The University has no preference for any particular software but some of the popular free online bibliography and citation tools are :-
 
 
 
  
May-June 2019  
March-April 2019
January-February 2019
 
Berita Harian                 Business Times
Guang Ming                    Kwong Wah Yit Poh
Malay Mail                      Nanyang Siang Pau
New Straits Times       The Star Online
The Sun Daily                Utusan Online