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1Introduction
Our aim in producing this reference document is to provide basic guidelines and examples for citing or referencing in the Chicago style. It covers most resources you will use in preparing your assignments such as books, journal articles, Internet sources, electronic resources and non-book formats. If you have questions about how to cite sources other than those illustrated here, consult the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003) available at WOU Main Library (Reference Collection), under the call number Z253.U58.2003
 
2Chicago Manual of Style
The Chicago Manual is an international authoritative guide to publication standards and style. It is widely used by those in the publication industry. It deals with all aspects of preparing and editing book manuscripts i.e. from American English grammar and usage to document preparation. First published in 1906 by the University of Chicago Press, it was then one of the few styles guides available. Today, there is a proliferation of citation style guides for writers, editors and publishers of various disciplines such as Modern Language Association (MLA) Style Manual, the American Psychological Association Style Book, Harvard Style, Vancouver Style and the Columbia Style Book.
 
Wawasan Open University uses the Chicago Manual as its primary style guide for preparing and editing its publication. The manual is also used as reference guide for determining the University referencing style. The citation examples listed in the Wawasan Open University Citation Guide area based on the principles presented in the Chicago Manual.
 
3The need for referencing
When you write an assignment, it is important that you acknowledge the source of ideas or information that you have used or mentioned in your work. Please do not use someone's words or ideas as though they were your own. Ethics of research require you to cite the source of work, regardless of whether you have paraphrase, summarise or refer to it. Failure to do so will mean you have committed plagiarism - a serious academic offence that may cause you to fail your assignment and even dismissal from the University. To avoid it, follow the conventions for correct citing/referencing as determined by the University.
 
When you are doing background reading for your assignment, remember to keep careful notes of your sources, including all the bibliographic information. The notes will come in handy when you need to compile your reference list/bibliography.
 
4Format for references
The Chicago Manual of Style allows you to use two different types of reference styles i.e. author-date system and the notes and bibliography system. WOU students are advised to follow the former.
 
4.1Author-date system
Generally used by writers in the physical, natural, and social sciences. Under this system, the source can be either cited in the text, usually in parenthesis (round brackets), by the author's last name, publication date and page if needed or the source can be placed at the end of the sentence, also in parenthesis. In text referencing should always be short because it is interrupting the text.
 
Example :
In another experiment (Cheeseman 2006), he used personal canvassing, telephone calls, and direct mail to urge people to vote.
 
The full details of the source are given in the References page at the end of the document. Similar citation style is used for all types of sources i.e. books, journal articles, Internet and other web resources.
 
Example :
In another experiment (Cheeseman 2006), he used personal canvassing, telephone calls, and direct mail to urge people to vote.
 
Print documents
To document a book, the following details should be provided:-
Author, A., and B. Author, eds. Year. Title: Subtitle. Edition. Place of publication: Name of Publisher.
 
Examples :
 
TypeCitation in textReference list
Book - single author(Consumers' Association of Penang 1986, 11) Consumers' Association of Penang. 1986. Drugs and the Third World: aminophenazone and dipyrone : hazards and marketing practices. Penang:CAP.

(Neuman 2006)Neuman, W. L. 2006. Social research methods: qualitative and quantitative approaches. 6th ed. Boston: Pearson.

Book - more than one author or editors(Dubofsky and Miller 2003) Dubofsky, D.A. and T. W. Miller, eds. 2003. Derivatives: valuation and risk management. New York: Oxford University Press.

No author(Kamus Dewan 2002)Kamus Dewan. 2002. 2nd ed. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
 
No date of publication(Al-Arabi n.d.)Al-Arabi, A. B. n.d. Ahkam al-Quran. Cairo: Maktabah al-Azhariyyah.
 
Translation(Shui 1973)Shui, C. T. 1973. Li Po and Tu Fu: poems selected and translated with an introduction and notes. Trans. M. Malcolm. Harmondsworth, Eng.: Penguin Books.
 
Multivolume work(Stewart and Williams 1987)Stewart, M. and D. B. Williams. 1987. Urbanism and urbanization. 4 vols. New York: Cambridge.
 
Theses or dissertation(Syn 1999)Syn, S. C. 1999. The progress of education in Malaysia after independence, Ph. D diss., Universiti Malaya.

Note: The title of an unpublished document is not italised.
 
Conference(Bujang and Husaini 2002)Bujang, B. K. H. and Husaini Omar, eds. 2002. Proceedings of 2nd GEGEM Research Seminar, July 2-4, 2003. Serdang: Penerbit UPM.
 
Organisation(Telekom 2003)Telekom Malaysia Berhad. 2003. Laporan tahunan 2001. Kuala Lumpur: Telekom Malaysia Berhad
 
Government publication(Kementerian Kesihatan 1996)Malaysia. Kementerian Kesihatan. 1996. Malaysia’s health: technical report of the Director-General of Health, Malaysia. KKM/Research Report/04/96. Malaysia: Kementerian Kesihatan.
 
 
Parts of a book
This refers to chapters or parts of edited work in which the parts have individual title and author(s), but are included in collections edited by others.
To document parts of a book, the following details should be provided:-
Author of Part. A. Year. Title of chapter or part. In Title: Subtitle of Book, Edition, A. Editor & B. Editor, inclusive page numbers. Place of Publication: Publisher.
 
Examples:
 
TypeCitation in textReference list
Article or chapter in a book(Rasiah 2004)Rasiah, R. 2004. Explaining growth, poverty and distribution in Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. In Globalisation Culture & Inequalities, edited by Abdul Rahman Embong, 145-166. Bangi: UKM Press.
 
Conference or seminar paper(Sahibin 2002)Sahibin Abdul Rahim. 2002. Rational soil management in the humid tropics. In Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference of the Asian Society of Soil Scientists, 2002, 15-21 July, edited by Santokh Singh and Johann Singhaseri. Kuala Lumpur: Pelanduk.
 
 
Journal articles
To document journal articles, the following details should be provided:
Article Author, A., and B. Article Author. Year. Title of Article. Title of Journal volume number (issue umber): inclusive page numbers.
 
Examples :
 
TypeCitation in textReference list
Journal article(James and Ma 2003) James. S. and Y. Ma. 2003. The behavior of financial analysts during the Asian financial crisis in Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. Pacific-Basin Finance Journal 9: 233-263.
 
Anonymous article (Unknown author)(Anon 2004)

Note: Generally to be avoided unless the article is signed Anonymous or if you need to group several anonymous work in a reference list
Anon. Biotechecnology research at the crossroad. 2004. Education Issues 55(8): 34-36
 
Newspaper article(Emmanuel 2005)Emmanuel, J. Heritage buildings to house varsity. New Straits Times. March 19, 2005: 30-31.

Note that according to the Chicago Manual of Style, citation to daily newspaper articles need not be mentioned in the reference list. The citation is more commonly made in the text.

Example:

In the article entitled "Heritage buildings to house varsity", published in the New Straits Times, March 19, 2005, James Emmanuel noted that...
 
Electronic documents
This covers Internet sites, e-mails, and electronic journal or book retrieved from one of the full-text databases subscribed by WOU library.
To document an electronic resource, the following details should be provided:-
Article Author's name. Date of publication or last revision. Title of complete work. URL. Date of access (in parentheses).
 
Examples :
 
TypeCitation in textReference list
E- books(Sanchez and Canton 2002) Sanchez, J. and M. P. Canton. 2002. Java programming for engineers. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press. Ebscohost e-book.
 
(Matthew 2006)Matthew, H, ed. 2006. Introducing information management: the business approach. Amsterdam: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann. Ebrary e-book.
 
  Commonwealth of Learning. 2005. Creating learning materials for open and distance learning: a handbook for authors and instructional designers. Vancouver: COL. http://www.col.org/colweb/webday/site/myjahiasite/shared/docs/ (accessed December 2, 2006)
 
E-journal from full-text database(Selvarajan 2006) Selvarajan, T. T. 2006. A cognitive processing model for assessing ethical behaviour of employees. Journal of American Academy of Business 9(1): 86-92. EbscoHost. http://web.ebscohost.com.neptune accessed December 1, 2006).
 
(Desharnais et al. 2006) Desharnais, J., M. Bernhard and G. Struth. Kleene algebra with domain. ACM Transactions on Computational Logic 7(4): 798-833. ACM Digital Library http://portal.acm.org. (accessed June 14, 2006).
 
Journal article from the Internet(Jacobs 1996) Jacobs, J. A. 1996. Gender inequality and higher education. Annual Review of Sociology 22: 153-185. http://www.questia.com (accessed November 22, 2006)
 
Newspaper article from Internet(Sario 2006) Sario, R. 2006. Sabah tourism players not happy with sales tax plan. The Star, December 1. http://biz.thestar.com.my/news (accessed December 1, 2006)
 
Newspaper article from full text database (Ganesan 2006) Ganesan, V. 2006. Tesco to take over Makro stores in Malaysia. The New Straits Times, December 1. E-Media. http://www.btimes.com.my/Current_News. (accessed December 1, 2006)
 
Internet document
Whole Internet site(Ministry of Human Resources 2003) Malaysia. Ministry of Human Resources. 2003. Combating unemployment: the Malaysian experience. http://www.mohr.gov.my/mygoveg/ (accessed October 18, 2006)
 
No author(Tutor and tutorial support 2006)Tutor and tutorial support. 2006. Wawasan Open University Registry. http://woulibrary.wou.edu.my/study_lstutor.aspx
 
Government publication(Ministry of Higher Education 2006)Malaysia. Ministry of Higher Education. 2006. Report by the Committee to study, review and make recommendations concerning the development and direction of higher education in Malaysia. http://portal.acm.org.neptune.wou.edu.my/dl.cfcoll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=8060441&CFTOKEN=11556764. (accessed July 19, 2006)
 
FTP site(Mathews 2005) Mathews, J. 2005.Numerical methods for Mathematics, Science, and Engineering. Upper Saddle River, NJ:Prentice Hall. ftp://ftp.ntua.gr/pub/netlib/textbook/index.html (December 15, 2006)
 
E-mail(Kong 2006) Kong, T. C. 2006. Lecture notes on logistics management. 29 October 2006, personal e-mail (accessed December 8, 2006).
 
 
Other sources
This includes interview recording, television broadcast, motion picture/video recording etc.
 
Examples :
 
TypeCitation in textReference list
Interview(Abdullah 2006) Abdullah Ahmad Badawi. 2006. Interview by Allan Waruthers. BBC Evening News. British Broadcasting Corporation, 24 August 2005.
 
Video recording(Wawasan Open University 2006) Wawasan Open University. 2006. Increasing access to higher learning. Video recording. Produced by Allan Poong. Penang: WOU.
 
Television programme(Zamri 2006) Zamri Ahmad. 2006. Learning made easier. Television programme. Kuala Lumpur: TV 2, 15 December
 
Microform(Miller 1994) Miller, C. M. 1994. Mobilize your business. In PC Magazine. Microfiche. Tokyo: Comp Communications.
 
CD-ROMs or DVD-ROMs(Terry and Giugni 2006) Terry, A. and D. Giugni. 2006. Business & the law. 4th ed. CD-ROM. Melbourne: Thomson.
 
 
Sample Reference List
The reference list will look like the following:-
 
References
Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, Interview by Allan Waruthers, BBC Evening News. British Broadcasting Corporation, 24 August 2005.

Al-Arabi, A. B. n.d. Ahkam al-Quran. Cairo: Maktabah al-Azhariyyah.

Anon. Biotechecnology research at the crossroad. 2004. Education Issues 55(8): 34-36.

Bujang, B. K. H. and Husaini Omar, eds. 2002. Proceedings of 2nd GEGEM Research Seminar, July 2-4, 2003. Serdang: Penerbit UPM.

Commonwealth of Learning. 2005. Creating learning materials for open and distance learning: a handbook for authors and instructional designers. Vancouver: COL. http://www.col.org/colweb/webdav/site/myjahiasite/ (accessed December 2, 2006).

Consumers' Association of Penang. 1986. Drugs and the Third World: aminophenazone and dipyrone: hazards and marketing practices. Penang: CAP.

Desharnais, J., M. Bernhard and G. Struth. Kleene algebra with domain. ACM Transactions on Computational Logic 7(4): 798-833. ACM Digital Library. http://portal.acm.org. (accessed June 14, 2006).

Dubofsky, D.A. and T. W. Miller, eds. 2003. Derivatives: valuation and risk management. New York: Oxford University Press.

Emmanuel, J. 2005. Heritage buildings to house varsity. New Straits Times. March 19: 30-31.

Ganesan, V. 2006. Tesco to take over Makro stores in Malaysia. The New Straits Times, December 1. E-Media. http://www.btimes.com.my/Current_News. (accessed Dec 1, 2006).

Jacobs, J. A. 1996. Gender inequality and higher education. Annual Review of Sociology 22: 153-185. http://www.questia.com. (accessed November 22, 2006).

James. S. and Y. Ma. 2003. The behavior of financial analysts during the Asian financial crisis in Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. Pacific-Basin Finance Journal 9: 233-263.

Kamus dwibahasa. 2002. 2nd ed. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Malaysia. Kementerian Kesihatan. 1996. Malaysia's health : technical report of the Director-General of Health, Malaysia. KKM/Research Report/04/96. Malaysia: Ministry of Health.

Malaysia. Ministry of Higher Education. 2006. Report by the Committee to study, review and make recommendations concerning the development and direction of higher education in Malaysia. http://portal.acm.org.neptune.wou.edu.my/dl.cfm?coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=8060441&CFTOKEN=11556764. (accessed July 19, 2006).

Malaysia. Ministry of Human Resources. 2003. Combating unemployment: the Malaysian experience. http://www.mohr.gov.my/mygoveg/. (accessed October 18, 2006).

Matthew, H, ed. 2006. Introducing information management: the business approach. Amsterdam: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann. Ebrary e-book.

Miller, C. M. 1994. Mobilize your business. In PC Magazine. Microfiche. Tokyo: Comp Communications.

Neuman, W. L. 2006. Social research methods: qualitative and quantitative approaches. 6th ed. Boston: Pearson.

Rasiah, R. 2004. Explaining growth, poverty and distribution in Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. In Globalisation culture & inequalities, edited by Abdul Rahman Embong, 145-166. Bangi: UKM Press.

Sahibin Abdul Rahim. 2002. Rational soil management in the humid tropics. In Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference of the Asian Society of Soil Scientists, 2002, 15-21 July, edited by Santokh Singh and Johann Singhaseri. Kuala Lumpur: Pelanduk.

Sanchez, J. and M. P. Canton. 2002. Java programming for engineers. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press. Ebscohost e-book.

Sario, R. 2006. Sabah tourism players not happy with sales tax plan. The Star, Dec 1. http://biz.thestar.com.my/news. (accessed December1, 2006).

Selvarajan, T. T. 2006. A cognitive processing model for assessing ethical behaviour of employees. Journal of American Academy of Business 9(1): 86-92. EbscoHost. http://web.ebscohost.com.neptune. (accessed December 1, 2006).

Shui, C. T. 1973. Li Po and Tu Fu: poems selected and translated with an introduction and notes. Trans. M. Malcolm. Harmondsworth, Eng. : Penguin Books.

Stewart, M. and D. B. Williams. 1987. Urbanism and urbanization. 4 vols. New York: Cambridge.

Syn, S. C. 1999. The progress of education in Malaysia after independence, Ph. D diss., Universiti Malaya.

Telekom Malaysia Berhad. 2003. Laporan tahunan 2001. Kuala Lumpur: Telekom Malaysia Berhad.

Terry, A. and D. Giugni. Business & the law. 2006. 4th ed. CD-ROM. Melbourne: Thomson

Tutor and tutorial support. 2006. Wawasan Open University Registry. http://woulibrary.wou.edu.my/study_ls_tutor.aspx (assessed November 28, 2006).

Wawasan Open University. 2006. Increasing access to higher learning. Videorecording. Produced by Allan Poong. Penang: WOU

Zamri Ahmad. 2006. Learning made easier. Television programme. Kuala Lumpur: TV 2, 15 December.
 
Abbreviations
You may use the standard abbreviations listed below in your citations.
 
AbbreviationsTerms
abbr.abbreviated, -ion
act.active
app.appendix
bibliog.bibliography, -er, -ical
biog.biography, -er, -ical
bk.book
chap.chapter
comp.compiler
dept.department
div.division
ed.editor (pl. eds.), edition, edited by
et al.et alii, and others
fol.folio
ibid.lbidem, in the same place
idldem, the same
inst.institute, institution
irreg.irregular
loc. citloco citato, in the place cited
mimeo mimeograph, -ed
n.d.no date
no.number
n.p.no place; no publisher; no page
p.page
pt.part
quar., quartquarter, quarterly
repr.reprint
rev.review, revised, revision
s.a.sine anno, without year
ser.series
supp. or suppl.supplement
s.v.sub verbo, sub voce, under the word
trans.translated by, translator(s)
vol.volume
yryear
 
Writing and Research Guides
Beside the Chicago Manual of Style, you may also consult the following writing and research guides available at the Main Library
  • American Psychological Association. 2005. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. 5th ed. Washington: American Psychological Association. (Call number BF76.7. P976 2001 Reference)
  • Booth, W. C., G. G. Colomb and J. M. Williams. 2008. The craft of research. 3rd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (Call number Q180.55 M4 B724 2008)
  • Fisher, C. 2004. Researching and writing a dissertation for business students. Essex: Pearson Education. (Call number LB2369. F528 2004)
  • Gibaldi, J. 2003. MLA handbook for writers of research papers. 6th ed. New York: Modern Language Association of America. (Call number LB2369. G437 2003)
  • Houghton, P. M., T. J. Houghton and M. F. Peters. 2005. APA: the easy way! A quick and simplified guide to the APA writing style. Flint, Mich.: Baker College, 2005. (Call number BF76.7. H835 2005)
  • Turabian, K. L. 1996. A manual for writers of term papers, theses, and disertations. 6th ed. Revised by John Grossman and Alice Bennett. Chicago: University of Chicago press. (Call number LB2369. T929 1996)
 
 
Bibliographic Management Software
There is a number of software available in the market that you can use for storing and cross linking your references and notes, and for generating specific bibliographies. The software varies in terms of costs, features and platform used. The University has no preference for any particular software but some of the popular ones are:-
  • EndNote
  • ProCite for Windows and Macintosh - Version 5 is available at the WOU Main Library. See the Reference Librarian if you need to use the software.
  • LibraryMaster
  • Papyrus - Free download for produing bibliographies, storing and cross linking references and importing bibliographic references etc.
  • Landmark's Citation Machines - A free website that students and researchers can use to cite their resources according to MLA, APA, Turabian and Chicago Style.
  • EasyBib - A free bibliography composer that you can use to format your sources using current APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian styles.
  • Mendeley - A freely-downloaded client which manage your documents on desktop and in the cloud. It also facilitates social networking, collaboration and sharing information within research networks.
  • Qiqqa - An excellent freeware which help to organize large number of PDFs files for researchers.
 
Ask the Library for help when in doubt and in need. Assistance can be provided both in-person or online.
 
 
  
September-October 2017  
July-August 2017
May-June 2017
March-April 2017
January-February 2017
May-June 2017 (Fiction)
March-April 2017 (Fiction)
 
Berita Harian                 Business Times
Guang Ming                    Kwong Wah Yit Poh
Malay Mail                      Nanyang Siang Pau
New Straits Times       The Star Online
The Sun Daily                Utusan Online