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MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION (MLA) CITATION GUIDE
The examples provided are based on the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, available in Wawasan libraries under call number LB2369 G437. For the most recent guidelines, check their website. This citation guide is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. Before using it, please consult your Course Co-ordinator or project supervisor as to the preferred citation style of your discipline.
 
Please note that reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each source.
 
Examples
 
Print documents | Parts of a book | Journal articles | Newspaper article | Electronic documents | Online journal article | Online newspaper article | Citing an entire website | Other sources | Work cited, references, or bibliography sample page | MLA Abbreviations | Writing and research guides | Bibliographic Management Software
 
Print documents
Author's last name, First name and Initial. Title in italics: Subtitle of Book. Location: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication.

Book with more than one author

The first given name appears in last name, first name format; subsequent author names appear in the first name last name format.

For works with more than three authors, you may choose to list only the first author followed by the phrase et al. (Latin for "and others") in place of the subsequent authors' names, or you may list all the authors in the order in which their names appear on the title page.

 
TypeReference List
Book - single authorConsumers' Association of Penang. Drugs and the Third World: aminophenazone and dipyrone : Hazards and marketing practices. Penang: CAP.
 
Neuman, W. L. (2006). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. 6th ed. Boston: Pearson.
 
Book - more than one author or editorsDubofsky, D. A., & Miller, T. W. Eds. (2003). Derivatives: Valuation and risk management. New York: Oxford University Press.
 
Unknown authorKamus Dewan. (2nd ed). Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
 
No date of publicationAl-Arabi, A. B. n.d. Ahkam al-Quran. Cairo: Maktabah al-Azhariyyah.
 
TranslationShui, C. T. (1973). Li Po and Tu Fu: Poems selected and translated with an introduction and notes. (M. Malcolm, Trans.). Harmondsworth, Eng.: Penguin Books.
 
Multivolume workStewart, M., & Williams, D. B. (1987). Urbanism and urbanization. (Vols.1-4). New York: Cambridge.
 
Theses or dissertationSyn, S. C. (1999). The progress of education in Malaysia after independence. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
 
ConferenceBujang, B. K. H. & Husaini Omar, Eds. (2002). Proceedings of 2nd GEGEM Research Seminar, July 2-4, 2003. Serdang: Penerbit UPM.
 
OrganisationTelekom Malaysia Berhad. (2003). Laporan tahunan 2001. Kuala Lumpur: Telekom Malaysia Berhad.
 
Government publicationMalaysia. Kementerian Kesihatan. (1996). Malaysia's health: Technical report of the Director-General of Health, Malaysia. KKM/Research Report/04/96. Malaysia: KKM.
 
 
Parts of a book
This refers to chapters or parts of edited work in which the parts have individual title and author(s), but are included in collections edited by others.

Author's last name, First name. "Title of Chapter". Title of Book. Ed. Editor's Name(s). Location: Publisher, Year of Publication. Pages of Chapter. Medium of Publication.
 
Examples
 
TypeReference List
Article or chapter in a bookRasiah, Ranee. "Explaining growth, poverty and distribution in Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand". Globalisation culture & inequalities. Ed. Abdul Rahman Embong. Bangi: UKM Press. 2004. 145-166. Print.
 
Conference or seminar paperSahibin Abdul Rahim. "Rational Soil Management in the Humid Tropics." Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference of the Asian Society of Soil Scientists, 15-21 July 2003, Kuala Lumpur. Eds. Santokh Singh and J. Singhaseri, Kuala Lumpur: Pelanduk, 2005. Print.
 
 
Journal articles
To document journal articles, the following details should be provided:-

Author's last name, First name and Initial and Author's first and last name. "Article Title." Journal title in italics Volume number. Issue number (Date): Article page numbers. Medium of Publication.

Note: According to the latest edition of The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers issue numbers should always be provided, when available.
 
Examples
 
TypeReference List
Journal articleJames, Simon and Yachan Ma. "The Behavior of Financial Analysts during the Asian Financial Crisis in Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia and Thailand." Pacific-Basin Finance Journal 9(2003): 233-263. Print
 
Anonymous article (Unknown author)Biotechnology Research at the Crossroad." Education Issues 55.1 (2004): 34-36. Print.
 
 
Newspaper article
Author's last name, First name and Initial (if provided). "Title of article." Newspaper title in italics [city, if not included in title] day month year : Article page numbers (includes section letter). Medium of Publication.
 
Example
 
TypeReference List
Newspaper articleEmmanuel, James. Heritage Buildings to House Varsity. New Straits Times [Kuala Lumpur] 19 Mar. 2005 : N30-31. Print.
 
 
Electronic documents
This covers Internet sites, e-mails, and electronic journal or book retrieved from one of the full-text databases subscribed by WOU library.

Note: For medium of publication, list all electronic sources as Web.

The use of URLs in MLA citations is no longer required as Web addresses are not static and some documents sometimes appear in multiple databases or URLs. It is also easy for readers to locate electronic sources via title or author searches using Internet Search Engines. If your course supervisor insist on the use of URLs, you may insert the URL in angle brackets after the date of access e.g.

To document an electronic resource, the following details should be provided:-

Author's last name, First name and Initial. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Name of Database. Place of access. Web. Data of access.
 
Examples
 
TypeReference List
E-booksSanchez, James and Michael Canton. (2002). Java Programming for Engineers. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press, 2002. Ebscohost e-book. Web. 26 Sep. 2011.
 
Matthew, Howard. Ed. Introducing Information Management: The Business Approach. Amsterdam: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, 2006. Ebrary. Web. 26 Sep. 2011
 
Commonwealth of Learning. Creating Learning Materials for Open and Distance Learning: A Handbook for Authors and Instructional Designers. Vancouver: COL, 2005. COL. Web. 5 Oct. 2011.
 
 
Online journal article
To document online newspaper articles, the following details should be provided:-

Author's last name, First name an Initial. "Title of the article." Newspaper title in italics [city, if not included in title] day month year: Article page numbers (includes section letter). Database or Web site name in italics. Web. day month year of access.
 
Examples
 
TypeReference List
E-journal from full-text databaseSelvarajan, Thana T. "A Cognitive Processing Model for assessing Ethical Behaviour of Employees." Journal of American Academy of Business. 9.1(2006): 86-92. EbscoHost. Web. 18 Jul. 2011.
 
Desharnais, James, Michael Berhnard and Gerald Struth. "Kleene Algebra with Domain." ACM Transactions on Computational Logic. 7.4(2006): 798-833. ACM Digital Library. Web. 28 Sep. 2011.
 
Journal article from the InternetJacobs, Jane, A. (1996). Gender Inequality and Higher Education. Annual Review of Sociology 22, 3-6. Web. 28 Sep. 2011.
 
 
Examples
 
Online newspaper article
To document online newspaper articles, the following details should be provided:-

Author's last name, First name an Initial. "Title of the article." Newspaper title in italics [city, if not included in title] day month year: Article page numbers (includes section letter). Database or Web site name in italics. Web. day month year of access.
 
Examples
 
TypeReference List
Newspaper article from InternetSario, Ronaldo. "Sabah Tourism Players not Happy with Sales Tax Plan." The Star [Penang] 19 July 2006: N14-15. Star Online. Web. 21 Jul 2006.
 
Newspaper article from full-text databaseGanesan, Vivko. "Tesco to Take Over Makro Stores in Malaysia." The New Straits Times [Kuala Lumpur] 12 Dec. 2006. NSTP E-Media. Web. 21 Jul. 2006.
 
 
Citing an entire website
Note: The date of access has to be provided because Web postings are often not static. Include the complete URL site.

Remember to use n.p. if no publisher name is available and n.d. if no publishing date is given.

Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Title of the Website. Version number. Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available). Web. Date of access.
 
 
Examples
 
TypeReference List
Internet documentMalaysia. Ministry of Human Resources. Combating Unemployment: the Malaysian Experience. 14 Mar. 2003. Web. 14 Aug. 2011.
 
Wawasan Open University. Registry. Tutor and Tutorial Support. 2006. Web. 10 Sep. 2011.
 
Malaysia. Ministry of Higher Education. (2006). Report by the Committee to Study, Review and Make Recommendations Concerning the Development and Direction of Higher Education in Malaysia. 3 July 2006. Web. 10 Sep. 2011.
 
 
Other sources
This includes interview recording, television broadcast, motion picture/video recording etc.
 
 
Examples
 
TypeReference List
Published interviewAbdullah Ahmad Badawi. Interview By Andrews Waruthers. BBC Evening News. Aug. 26 2006. Radio.
 
Interview conducted by researcherFernandez, Tony. Telephone Interview. 7 Sep. 2010.
 
Video recordingWawasan Open University: Increasing Access to Higher Learning. Prod. Alan Poong. 2006. Videocasette.
 
Television programme"Learning Made Easier." Prod. Zamri Ahmad. Dir. Dannial Arumuggam. TV 2. 15 Dec 2010. Television.
 
MicroformMiller, M. Costa. "Mobilize your Business: Guidelines for Small Enterprises." PC Magazine. (1994): 1-5, 11-15. Microfiche.
 
CD-ROMs of DVD-ROMsTerry, Anne and Danielle M. Giugni. Business & the Law. 4th ed. Melbourne: Thomson, 2006. CD-ROM.
 
Ancient Malay Food Recipes. Writ. And Dir. Rahim Maarof. Asian Food Channel, 2010. DVD
 
 
Works Cited, References, or Bibliography Sample Page
Note: All entries should be typed double-spaced.

Examples
 
Abdullah Ahmad Badawi. Interview By Andrews Waruthers. BBC Evening News. Aug. 26 2006. Radio.


Ancient Malay Food Recipes. Writ. And Dir. Rahim Maarof. Asian Food Channel, 2010. DVD.


"Biotechnology Research at the Crossroad." Education Issues 55.1 (2004): 34-36. Print.


Bujang, Kim H., and Husaini Omar, eds. Proceedings of 2nd GEGEM Research Seminar, July 2-4, 2003. Serdang: Penerbit UPM, 2002. Print.


Consumers' Association of Penang. Drugs and the Third World: Aminophenazone and Dipyrone : Hazards and Marketing Practices. Penang: CAP, 1986. Print.


Dubofsky, David A., and Thomas Miller. Eds. Derivatives: Valuation and Risk Management. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. Print.


Emmanuel, James. (2005, March 19). "Heritage Buildings to House Varsity". New Straits Times [Kuala Lumpur] 19 March 2005 : N30-31. Print.


Fernandez, Tony. Telephone Interview. 7 Sep. 2010.

Ibn al-Arabi, al-Maliki. Ahkam al-Quran. Cairo; Maktabah al-Azhariyyah, n.d. Print.


James, Simon and Yachan Ma. "The Behavior of Financial Analysts during the Asian Financial Crisis in Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia and Thailand." Pacific-Basin Finance Journal 9 (2003): 233-263. Print.


Jacobs, Jane, A. "Gender Inequality and Higher Education". Annual Review of Sociology 22 (2006): 3-6. Web. 28 Sep. 2011.


Kamus Dewan. (2nd ed.) Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 2002. Print.


Malaysia. Kementerian Kesihatan. Malaysia's Health: Technical Report of the Director-General of Health, Malaysia. KKM/Research Report/04/96. Malaysia: KKM, 1996. Print.


Matthew, Howard. Ed. Introducing Information Management: The Business Approach. Amsterdam: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, 2006. Ebrary. Web. 26 Sep. 2011.


Miller, M. Costa. "Mobilize your Business: Guidelines for Small Enterprises." PC Magazine. (1994): 1-5, 11-15. Microfiche.


Neuman, William. L. Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. 6th ed. Boston: Pearson, 2006. Print.


Rasiah, Ranee. "Explaining Growth, Poverty and Distribution in Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand." Globalisation Culture & Inequalities. Ed. Abdul Rahman Embong. Bangi: UKM Press, 2004. 145-166. Print.


Sahibin Abdul Rahim. "Rational Soil Management in the Humid Tropics." Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference of the Asian Society of Soil Scientists, 15-21 July 2003. Kuala Lumpur. Eds. Santokh Singh and J. Singhaseri, Kuala Lumpur: Pelanduk, 2005. Print.


Sanchez, James and Michael Canton. (2002). Java Programming for Engineers. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press, 2002. Ebscohost e-book. Web. 26 Sep. 2011.


Sario, Ronaldo. "Sabah Tourism Players Not Happy with Sales Tax Plan." The Star [Penang] 19 July 2006: N14-15. Star Online. Web. 21 July 2006.


Shui, Chien Tung. Li Po and Tu Fu: Poems Selected and Translated with an Introduction and Notes. Trans. M. Malcolm. Harmondsworth, Eng.: Penguin Books, 1873. Print.


Stewart, Morris and David B. Williams. Urbanism and Urbanization. (Vols. 1-4). New York: Cambridge, 1987. Print.


Syn, Samuel. "The Progress of Education in Malaysia after Independence." MA thesis. Universiti Malaya, 1999. Print.


Telekom Malaysia Berhad. Laporan Tahunan 2001. Kuala Lumpur: Telekom Malaysia Berhad, 2003. Print.


Wawasan Open University: Increasing Access to Higher Learning. Prod. Alan Poong. 2006. Videocasette.


Abbreviations
You may use the approved abbreviations listed below for constructing your reference list. Refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for more examples.
 
AbbreviationsTerms
abbr.abbr.
abr.abridgement, abridged
app.appendix
bibliog.bibliography, -er, -ical
biog.biography, -er, -ical
bk.book
chap.chapter
comp.compiler
dept.department
div.division
ed.editor (pl. eds.), edition, edited by
et al.et alii, and others
fwd.foreward, foreward by
ibidIbidem, in the same place
idIdem, the same
inst.institute, institution
irreg.irregular
loc. citloco citato, in the place cited
MAmaster of arts
MSmaster of science
n.d.no date
no.number
n.p.no place; no publisher
n. pag.no pagination
p.page
quar., quartquarter, quarterly
repr.reprint
rev.review, revised, revision
s.a.sine anno, without year
ser.series
supp.supplement
s.v.sub verbo, sub voce, under the word
trans.translated by, translator(s)
vol.volume
yryear
 
Writing and Research Guides
Beside the APA style guide, you may also consult the following writing and research guides available at the Main Library.
  • American Psychological Association. 2005. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. 5th ed. Washington: American Psychological Association. (Call number BF76.7. P976 2001 Reference)
  • Booth, W. C., G. G. Colomb and J. M. Williams. 2008. The craft of research. 3rd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (Call number Q180.55 M4 B724 2008)
  • Fisher, C. 2004. Researching and writing a dissertation for business students. Essex: Pearson Education. (Call number LB2369. F528 2004)
  • Gibaldi, J. 2003. MLA handbook for writers of research papers. 6th ed. New York: Modern Language Association of America. (Call number LB2369. G437 2003)
  • Houghton, P. M., T. J. Houghton and M. F. Peters. 2005. APA: the easy way! A quick and simplified guide to the APA writing style. Flint, Mich.: Baker College, 2005. (Call number BF76.7. H835 2005)
  • Turabian, K. L. 1996. A manual for writers of term papers, theses, and disertations. 6th ed. Revised by John Grossman and Alice Bennett. Chicago: University of Chicago press. (Call number LB2369. T929 1996)
 
Bibliographic Management Software
There is a number of software available in the market that you can use for storing and cross linking your references and notes, and for generating specific bibliographies. The software varies in terms of costs, features and platform used. The University has no preference for any particular software but some of the popular ones are:-
  • EndNote
  • ProCite for Windows and Macintosh - Version 5 is available at the WOU Main Library. See the Reference Librarian if you need to use the software.
  • LibraryMaster
  • Papyrus - Free download for produing bibliographies, storing and cross linking references and importing bibliographic references etc.
  • Landmark's Citation Machines - A free website that students and researchers can use to cite their resources according to MLA, APA, Turabian and Chicago Style.
  • EasyBib - A free bibliography composer that you can use to format your sources using current APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian styles.
  • Mendeley - A freely-downloaded client which manage your documents on desktop and in the cloud. It also facilitates social networking, collaboration and sharing information within research networks.
  • Qiqqa - An excellent freeware which help to organize large number of PDFs files for researchers.
 
 
 
  
January-February 2017
 
Berita Harian                 Business Times
Guang Ming                    Kwong Wah Yit Poh
Malay Mail                      Nanyang Siang Pau
New Straits Times       The Star Online
The Sun Daily                Utusan Online